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History Through Numismatics

"The World's leaders and their coins"

Chile
Chile, 1 Centavo 1853, 29 mm, Copper, KM# 127
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - 1853
Star in center
ECONOMIA ES RIQUEZA
1 CENTAVO within laurel wreath
Republic
Decimal Coinage
Chile, 5 Centavos 1908, 14 mm, 0.4000 Silver 0.0128 oz. ASW, KM# 155.2a
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
CINCO CENTAVOS 1908 within wreath
Chile, 5 Centavos 1928, 14 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 165
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
CINCO CENTAVOS 1928 within wreath
Chile, 10 Centavos 1915, 16.5 mm, 0.4500 Silver 0.0217 oz. ASW, KM# 156.3
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
DIEZ CENTAVOS 1915 within wreath
Chile, 10 Centavos 1921, 19.5 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 166
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
DIEZ CENTAVOS 1921 within wreath
Chile, 10 Centavos 1922, 19.5 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 166
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
DIEZ CENTAVOS 1922 within wreath
Chile, 10 Centavos 1937, 19.5 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 166
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
DIEZ CENTAVOS 1937 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1899, 21 mm, 0.5000 Silver 0.0643 oz. ASW, KM# 151.2
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
VEINTE CENTAVOS 1899 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1908, 21 mm, 0.4000 Silver 0.0385 oz. ASW, KM# 151.3
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
VEINTE CENTAVOS 1908 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1916, 21 mm, 0.4500 Silver 0.0434 oz. ASW, KM# 151.4
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
VEINTE CENTAVOS 1916 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1922, 21 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 167.1
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
20 CENTAVOS 1922 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1924, 21 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 167.1
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
20 CENTAVOS 1924 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1925, 21 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 167.1
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
20 CENTAVOS 1925 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1929, 21 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 167.1
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
20 CENTAVOS 1929 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1932, 21 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 167.3
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
20 CENTAVOS 1932 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1940, 21 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 167.3
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
20 CENTAVOS 1940 within wreath
Chile, 20 Centavos 1942, 18 mm, Copper, KM# 177
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
20 CENTAVOS 1942
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 20 Centavos 1943, 18 mm, Copper, KM# 177
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
20 CENTAVOS 1943
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 20 Centavos 1947, 18 mm, Copper, KM# 177
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
20 CENTAVOS 1947
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 20 Centavos 1948, 18 mm, Copper, KM# 177
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
20 CENTAVOS 1948
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 20 Centavos 1949, 18 mm, Copper, KM# 177
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
20 CENTAVOS 1949
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 20 Centavos 1951, 18 mm, Copper, KM# 177
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
20 CENTAVOS 1951
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 20 Centavos 1952, 18 mm, Copper, KM# 177
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
20 CENTAVOS 1952
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 20 Centavos 1953, 18 mm, Copper, KM# 177
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
20 CENTAVOS 1953
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 50 Centavos 1942, 20.5 mm, Copper, KM# 178
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
50 CENTAVOS 1942
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1933, 29 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 176.1
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
1 UN PESO 1933
Within wreath
Chile, 1 Peso 1942, 25 mm, Copper, KM# 179
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1942
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1944, 25 mm, Copper, KM# 179
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1944
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1948, 25 mm, Copper, KM# 179
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1948
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1949, 25 mm, Copper, KM# 179
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1949
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1952, 25 mm, Copper, KM# 179
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1952
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1953, 25 mm, Copper, KM# 179
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1953
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1954, 25 mm, Aluminum, KM# 179a
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1954
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1955, 25 mm, Aluminum, KM# 179a
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1955
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1956, 25 mm, Aluminum, KM# 179a
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1956
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1957, 25 mm, Aluminum, KM# 179a
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1957
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 1 Peso 1958, 25 mm, Aluminum, KM# 179a
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
Bust of General Bernardo O'Higgins right
1 UN PESO 1958
Plant garland in upper arch
Chile, 10 Pesos 1956, 29 mm, Aluminum, KM# 181
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
10 PESOS - UN CONDOR 1956 
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 10 Pesos 1957, 29 mm, Aluminum, KM# 181
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
10 PESOS - UN CONDOR 1957 
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 10 Pesos 1958, 29 mm, Aluminum, KM# 181
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
10 PESOS - UN CONDOR 1958 
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 10 Pesos 1959, 29 mm, Aluminum, KM# 181
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
10 PESOS - UN CONDOR 1959 
Flanked by grain sprigs

Reform Coinage (1962 - 1974)
10 Pesos = 1 Centesimo / 100 Centesimos = 1 Escudo 
Chile, 1 Centesimo 1960, 29 mm, Aluminum, KM# 189
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 1 CENTESIMO 1960
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 1 Centesimo 1961, 29 mm, Aluminum, KM# 189
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 1 CENTESIMO 1961
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 1 Centesimo 1963, 29 mm, Aluminum, KM# 189
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 1 CENTESIMO 1963
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 2 Centesimos 1964, 20 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 193
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 2 CENTESIMOS 1964
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 2 Centesimos 1965, 20 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 193
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 2 CENTESIMOS 1965
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 2 Centesimos 1968, 20 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 193
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 2 CENTESIMOS 1968
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 2 Centesimos 1970, 20 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 193
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 2 CENTESIMOS 1970
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 5 Centesimos 1964, 23.5 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 190
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 5 CENTESIMOS 1964
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 5 Centesimos 1965, 23.5 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 190
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 5 CENTESIMOS 1965
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 5 Centesimos 1969, 23.5 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 190
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 5 CENTESIMOS 1969
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 5 Centesimos 1970, 23.5 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 190
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 5 CENTESIMOS 1970
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 10 Centesimos 1963, 27 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 191
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 10 CENTESIMOS 1963
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 10 Centesimos 1965, 27 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 191
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 10 CENTESIMOS 1965
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 10 Centesimos 1966, 27 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 191
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 10 CENTESIMOS 1966
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 10 Centesimos 1970, 27 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 191
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Flying condor in center
E° 10 CENTESIMOS 1970
Flanked by grain sprigs

Chile, 10 Centesimos 1971, 18 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 194
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
10 CENTESIMOS 1971
Coat of arms above value, date and mint mark below

Chile, 20 Centesimos 1971, 20 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 195
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - J. M. BALMACEDA
Jose Manuel Balmaceda bust left
20 CENTESIMOS 1971
Coat of arms above value, date and mint mark below​

Chile, 50 Centesimos 1971, 22 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 196
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - M. RODRIGUEZ
Manuel Rodriguez bust right
50 CENTESIMOS 1971
Coat of arms above value, date and mint mark below​
Chile, 1 Escudo 1971, 19 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 197
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - J. M. CARRERA
Jose Miguel Carrera bust facing
1 ESCUDO 1971
Coat of arms above value, date and mint mark below​

Chile, 10 Escudos 1974, 19 mm, Aluminum, KM# 200
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Condor in center
E° 10  1974
Within wreath

Reform Coinage (1975 - Present)
100 Centavos = 1 Peso ; 1000 Old Escudos = 1 Peso  
Chile, 1 Peso 1975, 24 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 207
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - BERNARDO O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
1 PESO 1975
Within wreath

Chile, 1 Peso 1976, 24 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 208
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
1 PESO 1976
Within wreath

Chile, 1 Peso 1977, 24 mm, Copper-Nickel, KM# 208
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
1 PESO 1977
Within wreath

Chile, 1 Peso 1978, 24 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 208a
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
1 PESO 1978
Within wreath

Chile, 1 Peso 1979, 24 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 208a
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
1 PESO 1979
Within wreath

Chile, 5 Pesos 2002, 16.5 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 232
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
5 PESOS 2002
Within wreath

Chile, 10 Pesos 1999, 21 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 228.2
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
10 PESOS 1999
Within wreath

Chile, 10 Pesos 2007, 21 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 228.2
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
10 PESOS 2007
In center within wreath

Chile, 50 Pesos 2008, 25.5 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 219.2
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
50 PESOS 20085
Within wreath

Chile, 10 Pesos 1994, 21 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 228.2
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
10 PESOS 1999
Within wreath

Chile, 10 Pesos 1998, 21 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 228.2
REPUBLICA DE CHILE - LIBERTADOR B. O'HIGGINS
General Bernardo O'Higgins bust right
10 PESOS 1999
Within wreath

Chile, 100 Pesos 1992, 27 mm, Aluminum-Bronze, KM# 226.2
REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Coat of arms in center, mint mark below
100 PESOS 1992
Within wreath

DON CARLOS 
STAMPS AND COINS
SERVING COLLECTORS SINCE 1961
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.
Spain conquered and colonised Chile in the mid 16th century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche that inhabited south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime headed by Augusto Pinochet ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a centre-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, and democratic development. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States.
1870
Manuel Montt

▸6th President of Chile between September 18, 1851 and September 18, 1861
▸In 1851 Montt won the presidency, but the liberals thought his election was fraudulent and instigated an armed revolt, the Revolution of 1851, which was quickly subdued.
▸Montt represented the conservative oligarchy and was authoritarian and inflexible in his beliefs, but he also worked for the economic and social progress of his nation
▸His administration made advances in commerce and banking, codified Chilean laws, strongly promoted public education and immigration, and colonized the area south of the Bío-Bío River.
▸Manuel Montt was the first civilian presiden. In 1861, Montt became President of the Supreme Court, a position which he held up to his death in September 1880. 
Federico Errázuriz Echaurren

▸13th President of Chile between September 18, 1896 and July 12, 1901
▸Errázuriz's administration was characterized by a marked advancement in public education.
▸This administration also contributed with new tram systems in Santiago, Valparaíso, San Felipe and San Bernardo. Errázuriz Echaurren contracted the new sewerage system for Santiago, and the water reservoir of Peñuelas, which still provides the water for Valparaíso.
▸Chile and Argentina were on the brink of war, due to long-standing border disputes stemming from the peace treaty of 1881, the situation of the Puna de Atacama (a disputed territory formerly owned by Bolivia and claimed by both countries) and an ongoing naval arms race.
▸He died suddenly of cerebral thrombosis on July 12, 1901 while in Valparaíso.
1899
Pedro Montt

▸15th President of Chile between September 18, 1906 and August 16, 1910
▸The son of the former Chilean president Manuel Montt Torres and Rosario Montt Goyenechea
▸In 1891 he took an active part in the revolution that overthrew Balmaceda. 
▸ His administration supported the construction of a railway that ran the length of the country and stimulated the production of nitrates and copper.
▸ His first action was to call out the army to suppress large scale strikes in 1907, which resulted in the Santa María School massacre.
▸ In 1910, Montt left Chile for medical treatment in Germany, but died before he could return to Chile.
1908
Ramón Barros Luco

▸16th President of Chile between December 23, 1910 and December 23, 1915
▸The philosophy of Barros Luco's government can be summarised with the following phrase, well known in Chile, "99% of problems solve themselves, and the remaining 1% have no solution"
▸His name has become famous, not for his time as president, but rather due to the fact that he used to eat a particular sandwich often, which became known as a Barros Luco. This sanguruche (Sandwich) is made with a slab of steak or multiple slices of beef with melted cheese, prepared on the grill, similar to a philly cheesesteak sandwich and served hot. The sandwich is still served today in most restaurants throughout Chile.
1915
Juan Luis Sanfuentes

▸17th President of Chile between December 23, 1915 and December 23, 1920
▸The Chilean presidential election of 1915 developed into a bitterly contest between Sanfuentes, a coalition candidate of the Liberal Democratic Party and the Conservative Party and Javier Ángel Figueroa 
▸supported by the Liberal Alliance parties. Sanfuentes beat Figueroa by a single vote, among allegations of fraud and electoral intervention. The National Congress was called to confirm the result.
▸Through World War I Chile remained neutral. While the conflict lasted, domestic industry had one of its biggest booms, with the national industry growing 53% in those four years.
▸But the end of the war led to a crisis of the nitrate industry, which resulted in a wave of social unrest. Sanfuentes' hard line against striking coal miners and trade unionists in the final year of his presidency was a key factor in the rise of his liberal reformer successor.
1916
Arturo Alessandri (First Term)

▸18th President of Chile between December 23, 1920 and September 23, 1924
▸He was a Chilean political figure and reformer, who served three times as the President of Chile, first between 1920 and 1924, and then again in 1925, and finally from 1932 until 1938.
▸During most of 1924, Congress refused to enact the laws that he submitted.
▸A group of 56 military officers protested for their low salaries, in the incident known as the saber-rattling. The next day the same group created the "military committee" to defend themselves from the government. They demanded of President Alessandri the dismissal of three of his ministers, including the Minister of War; the enactment of a labor code, the passage of an income tax law, and the improvement of the military salaries. Congress didn't dare to protest, and the laws were passed in a matter of hours.
▸Alessandri felt that he had become just a pawn of the military and on September 9, he resigned, and requested asylum at the US Embassy. Congress refused to accept his resignation, and instead granted him a six-month constitutional leave of absence.  He was reinstated in March 1925 and served the Until October 1.
1921
1922
1924
1925
Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (First Term)

▸21th President of Chile between May 10, 1927 and November 15, 1931
▸After winning the presidential election that year with 98% of the vote, Ibáñez became President and wielded dictatorial powers, began to exercise them using rule by decree, suspending parliamentary elections, instead naming politicians to the Senate and Chamber of Deputies himself. Political opponents were arrested and exiled, including his former ally Marmaduke Grove.
▸His popularity, however, was helped by massive loans by American banks, which helped to promote a high rate of growth in the country. 
▸He signed the 1929 Treaty of Lima, in which Chile agreed to return the Tacna Province to Peru, which had been seized during the War of the Pacific.
▸His popularity lasted until after the 1929 collapse of Wall Street. At that point all loans were halted and called. Without the influx of foreign currency, Chile was heavily affected by the Great Depression.
1928
1929
Arturo Alessandri (Second Term)

▸President of Chile between December 24, 1932 and December 24, 1938
▸He was a Chilean political figure and reformer, who served three times as the President of Chile, first between 1920 and 1924, and then again in 1925, and finally from 1932 until 1938.
▸That time was also marked by the appearance of new violent occurrences, such as the rural rebellion of Ránquil and their bloody repression, and the Nazi-inspired National Socialist Movement of Chile
▸ In the economic sphere, the recovery of the crisis of 1929 was begun with the work of the Treasury Minister
▸He balanced the fiscal deficit with new taxes and resumed payment of the external debt, with losses for holders of Chilean bonds. When they reached a surplus, they focused on public works. The construction of the National Stadium in Santiago, inaugurated in December 1938, stands out.
1932
1933
1937
Pedro Aguirre Cerda

▸23rd President of Chile between December 25, 1938 and November 25, 1941
▸A member of the Radical Party. He governed Chile until his death in 1941. Pedro Aguirre Cerda was of Basque descent.
▸Cerda was elected under the slogan "Gobernar es educar" (to govern is to educate.) 
▸As a teacher, his priority in government was education. He promoted the development of the technical-industrial schools. He also created thousands of new regular schools and encouraged the growth of the university system to cover the whole of the country. 
▸Aguirre’s government also redistributed some land, encouraged the formation of agricultural settlements and built low cost housing and schools.
​▸ He died of tuberculosis, on November 25, 1941 in Santiago, Chile.
1940
Juan Antonio Ríos

▸24th President of Chile between April 2, 1942 and June 27, 1946
▸He was a Chilean political figure, and President during the height of World War II. 
▸Ríos' presidency was marked from the very beginning by parliamentary instability, caused by rivalries between the different political tendencies in his cabinet, and the renewed and increased influence of Congress.
▸The Chilean Communist Party opposed Ríos because he had initially chosen neutrality in World War II and had refused to break off diplomatic relations with the Axis Powers, while the right-wing accused him of complacency with the left.
▸Ríos' administration, continuing the Aguirre Cerda policies, focused on the development of the steel, power and oil industries. Thus in 1943, he created the National Electricity Company, in 1945, the National Oil Company, and in 1946, the Pacific Steel Company 
​▸ President Ríos died of cancer beffre the end of his term on June 27, 1946
1942
1943
1944
Gabriel González Videla

▸25th President of Chile between November 3, 1946 – November 3, 1952
▸His first cabinets, included Communist ministers but the international Cold War and Chile’s internal troubles soon pushed González Videla toward the right.
▸González Videla had a fallout with his Communist allies. They demanded more cabinet seats, which González Videla refused to grant. He first expelled them from his cabinet and then banned them completely under the 1948 Law of Permanent Defense of Democracy
▸He constructed a new cabinet made up of conservatives, liberals, radicals, some socialists, and members of the small Democratic Party. The Communist Party remained illegal until 1958.
▸During his presidency he became the first chief of state of any nation to visit Antarctica. The Chilean Gonzalez Videla Antarctic Base is named after him.
1947
1948
1949
1951
1952
Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (Second Term)

▸26th President of Chile between November 3, 1952 and November 3, 1958
▸His second term was a very modest success. By that time he was already old and ailing, and he left government mostly to his cabinet. His major problems during his presidency were those concerned with the economy.
▸He had no plan to control inflation, one of the most pressing economic problems at the time in Chile, and as a result it skyrocketed to 71% in 1954 and 83% in 1955. Helped by the Klein-Sacks mission, Ibáñez managed to reduce it to 33% when he left the presidency. Public transport costs rose by 50% and economic growth fell to 2.5%
▸Now more of a centrist politically, Ibáñez won the support of many left-wingers by repealing the Law for the Defense of Democracy, which banned the Communist Party.
▸The Región Aisén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo is named after him, in honor of his attempts to integrate the isolated regions of Aysén and Magallanes into Chile. The General Ibáñez Airport in Punta Arenas is also named after him.
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Jorge Alessandri

▸27th President of Chile between November 3, 1958 and November 3, 1964
▸He was the son of Arturo Alessandri, who was president on two different occasions
▸In March 1958, defeted the united left candidate, Salvador Allende by 32.2%
▸Alessandri focused, on economic issues, particularly on controlling inflation and balancing the state budget, and he liberalised Chile's tariff régime. However, he once again froze public sector pay, unleashing widespread industrial unrest.
▸In May 1960, a strong earthquake struck the densely populated area between Concepción and Puerto Montt, causing more than US$400 million in damage. Reconstruction and relief soon drowned out other issues.
▸Alessandri's period of office ended in 1964, and he was succeeded by his Christian Democrat opponent of 1958, the Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva. Alessandri returned to managing his paper factory.
1959
1960
1961
1963
1964
Eduardo Frei Montalva

▸28th President of Chile between November 3, 1964 and November 3, 1970
▸Had one of the highest voter turnouts in Chilean history.
▸He did a lot to tackle poverty, as characterised by the growing share of wages as a proportion of GNP. This positive redistribution of wealth was encouraged by government policies, particularly in the rural sector, where wages rose by 40% in real terms.
▸Between 1964 and 1970, total enrolment in education increased by 46%, while around 250,000 houses were built, mostly for the poor.
▸Frei's administration also introduced a wealth tax and carried out a property tax reassessment in order to make the taxation system more progressive.
▸ On November 4, he left office, handing over the Presidency to Salvador Allende.
1965
1966
1968
1969
1970
Salvador Allende Gossens

▸29th President of Chile between November 3, 1970 and September 11, 1973
▸Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
▸As president, Allende adopted a policy of nationalization of industries and collectivisation. Due to these and other factors, increasingly strained relations between him and the legislative and judicial branches of the Chilean government.
▸A declaration by Congress of a "constitutional breakdown." A centre-right majority including the Christian Democrats called for his overthrow by force. 
▸On 11 September 1973, the military moved to oust Allende in a coup d'état sponsored by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). As troops surrounded La Moneda Palace, he gave his last speech vowing not to resign.
▸ Later that day, Allende shot himself dead with an assault rifle.
1971
Augusto Pinochet

▸30th President of Chile between December 17, 1974 and March 11, 1990
▸Pinochet assumed power in Chile following a United States backed coup d'état on 11 September 1973 that overthrew Salvador Allende and ended civilian rule.
▸Pinochet had been promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Army by Allende on 23 August 1973. In December 1974, the ruling military junta appointed Pinochet President of Chile by joint decree.
▸Investigations have identified murder, diappearances and torture. As of 2011, the official number of deaths and forced disappearances stands at 3,065.
▸By the time of his death on 10 December 2006, about 300 criminal charges were still pending against him in Chile for numerous human rights violations during his 17-year rule.
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1998
Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle

▸33rd President of Chile between March 11, 1994 and March 11, 2000
▸His father was Eduardo Frei Montalva who was President of Chile from 1964 to 1970.
▸Frei’s presidency was notable in making improvements in health and education, together with reducing poverty
▸In his losing speach for re-election he gracefully said "The election is over and Chileans have shown civic maturity... The results clearly show the solidity of our democracy. It has been clean and transparent in line with our tradition. I want to congratulate Pinera, to whom most Chileans have given their trust for the next four years." 
1994
1999
Patricio Aylwin

▸32nd President of Chile between March 11, 1990 and March 11, 1994
▸Despite resistance from elements of the Chilean military and government after his election, Patricio Aylwin was staunch in his support for the Chilean Truth and Reconciliation Commission which exposed the Chilean government’s brutalities.
▸The Aylwin Government did much to reduce poverty and inequality during its time in office. A tax reform was introduced in 1990 which boosted tax revenues by around 15% and enabled the Aylwin Government to increase government spending on social programs from 9.9% to 11.7% of GDP.
▸Under the Aylwin government, the numbers of Chileans living in poverty significantly decreased, with a United Nations report estimating that the percentage of the population living in poverty had fallen from around 40% of the population in 1989 to around 33% by 1993.
1992
Ricardo Lagos

▸34th President of Chile between March 11, 2000 and March 11, 2006
▸During the first year of his term in office, Lagos had to confront a high level of unemployment. In spite of this, Lagos enjoyed great popular support,
▸During 2004, Lagos faced a series of tensions in his relation with other South American countries, caused by recurring Bolivian aspirations for access to the sea. This situation was linked with the power crisis taking place in Argentina, an important supplier of natural gas to Chile. In bilateral meetings between Bolivian President Carlos Mesa and Argentine President Néstor Kirchner, the former agreed to the sale of Bolivian gas to Argentina under the condition that "not a single gas molecule be sold to Chile". 
▸Free Trade Agreements were signed with the European Community, the United States, South Korea, the People's Republic of China and New Zealand, Singapore and Brunei
▸Lagos teaches political and economic development at Brown University in the United States.
2002
Michelle Bachelet

▸35th President of Chile between March 11, 2006 and March 11, 2010
▸She was the first woman in her country to become President
▸For her first state visit, Bachelet chose Argentina, where she met with president Néstor Kirchner, with whom she signed strategic agreements in energy and infrastructure, including the possibility of launching a bidding process to operate the Transandine Railway. 
▸In March 2009, Bachelet launched the "I Choose my PC" program, awarding free computers to poor seventh graders with excellent academic performance attending government-subsidized schools.
▸Less than two weeks before Bachelet's term expired, Chile was ravaged by an 8.8-magnitude earthquake that killed more than 500 people, toppled apartment buildings and bridges and triggered tsunamis that wiped away entire fishing villages.
▸Bachelet was elected to serve as president on March 11, 2014
2007
2008